CLASS A MISHAP
A mishap resulting in one or more of the following:
- Direct mishap cost totaling $2,000,000 or more.
- A fatality or permanent total disability.
- Destruction of a Department of Defense aircraft.
- Permanent loss of primary mission capability of a space vehicle.
CLASS B MISHAP
- Direct mishap cost totaling $500,000 or more but less than $2,000,000.
- A permanent partial disability.
- Inpatient hospitalization of three or more personnel (not counting individuals hospitalized for observation, diagnostic, or administrative purposes that were treated and released.
- Permanent degradation of primary or secondary mission capability of a space vehicle or the permanent loss of secondary mission capability of a space vehicle.
CLASS C MISHAP
- Direct mishap cost totaling $50,000 or more but less than $500,000.
- Any injury or occupational illness that causes loss of one or more days away from work not including the day or shift it occurred.
- An occupational injury or illness resulting in permanent change of job.
- Permanent loss or degradation of tertiary mission capability of a space vehicle.
CLASS D MISHAP
- Direct mishap cost totaling $20,000 or more but less than $50,000.
- Any mishap resulting in a recordable injury or illness not otherwise classified as a Class A, B, or C mishap. These are cases where, because of injury or occupational illness, the employee only works partial days, has restricted duties (does not include medical restriction from flying or special operational duties (DNIF) or was transferred to another job, required medical treatment greater than first aid, or experienced loss of consciousness. In addition, a significant injury (e.g. fractured/cracked bone, punctured eardrum) or occupational illness (e.g. occupational cancer (mesothelioma), chronic irreversible disease (beryllium disease) diagnosed by a physician or other licensed health care professional must be reported even if it does not result in death, days away from work, restricted work, job transfer, medical treatment greater than first aid, or loss of consciousness.
CLASS E EVENTS
- Certain occurrences do not meet reportable mishap classification criteria, but are deemed important to investigate/report for hazard identification and mishap prevention. Class E reports provide an expeditious way to disseminate valuable mishap prevention information.
IS “PROACTIVE” JUST ANOTHER BUZZWORD? HOW IS IT DIFFERENT FROM JUST “ACTIVE” SAFETY?
Proactive safety refers to searching for hazards that are unknown or insufficiently understood, whereas active safety entails managing known hazards. All of us aviators are used to managing aviation hazards actively. We recognize safety threats when they appear and do something to either avoid or mitigate the hazard. However, relying on rather limited human perception to detect all hazards in the highly complex arena of aviation will let us down time after time. Not all hazards are obvious and even those hazards that are obvious are often not fully understood. Proactive safety brings together technology and human ingenuity to analyze and take action on previously undetected or insufficiently assessed hazards.
IS PROACTIVE AVIATION SAFETY DOING AWAY WITH MISHAP INVESTIGATION?
No. Although some civilian aircraft operators have been so successful with proactive safety that they have virtually eliminated the need for mishap investigation, we are not there yet. We still have a significant number of mishaps, which means that we still derive extremely important information from our mishap investigations. However, it is true that the more energy we dedicate to proactive safety the less number of mishaps we will have. That is what we mean when we refer to "transforming" the way we conduct safety in the Air Force.
ISN'T THIS JUST TRYING TO CRAM AIRLINE SAFETY INTO A MILITARY FORMAT?
No. We are constantly assessing all safety initiatives being used around the world. Because the airline industry flies millions of hours every year and has an extremely low mishap rate, in stands to reason that some airline initiatives should be studied to see what elements can be used in military settings. All Air Force flights today benefit to some extent from using crew resource management (CRM) and related concepts, such as formation resource management. CRM was developed by NASA and the airline industry and we have applied the principles of the program throughout the entire Air Force, in one way or another. Similarly, our recent adoption of LOSA stands as another great example of how an airline program can be adjusted for excellent use in our operations.
WHAT AIR FORCE COMMUNITIES DOES AFSEC PROSEF SUPPORT?
We focus our efforts on airmen, leaders, and safety professionals in the active duty Air Force, Air Force Reserves, and Air National Guard.
WHAT CAN YOU DO FOR ME?
We are eager to train safety professionals, commanders, and airmen on how to commence participating in our programs or how to extract the most benefit from our programs if already a participant. We can help customize certain analyses for your units and can adjust the data that are collected and how we analyze the data based on suggestions from the field. We can provide you with MDS-specific user guides for MFOQA, produce location or hazard specific studies using MFOQA and ASAP, and connect you with our aircraft analysts and program managers to answer your questions.
WHAT DOES THE AFSEC PROSEF TEAM DO?
We structure our work around the four pillars of our Safety Management System: policy, assurance, risk management, and promotion.
POLICY: we help draft instructions and memoranda that foster the funding and support of proactive safety initiatives related to flight operations. It is important to obtain senior leadership commitment to continuously decreasing the Air Force flight mishap rate and we believe the endorsement of proactive safety initiatives is a key means to achieving success.
ASSURANCE: we provide the means for assessing whether hazards have been mitigated through safety actions. ASAP provides a qualitative means for determining whether previously reported hazards continue to exist, MFOQA can provide quantitative insight into the frequency and extent of a hazard, and LOSA is excellent and establishing the cultural and organizational elements germane to a hazard.
RISK MANAGEMENT: our programs allow previously unknown hazards to be detected, measured, and trended. In certain situations we can quantify the amount of risk presented by detected hazards by determining the likely severity and probability of exposure to the hazard. We work with our AFSEC human factors experts, our program analysts, and the operational community to determine the individual and organizational causes that may be associated with the hazards and thus play a key part in the risk management process.
PROMOTION: we teach ProSEF in four AFSEC academic courses , commonly perform presentations at Air Force events and aviation safety conferences, publish articles, and create case studies to showcase the use of ProSEF programs.
WHAT TYPE OF FLYING CAN BENEFIT FROM PROSEF?
Any type of operation in any part of the Air Force can benefit from proactive processes. Regardless of what we do in the Air Force, we all face hazards and inefficiencies in our daily processes that need to be identified, understood, and managed. We detect, we understand, and we act. How can we properly act if we don't fully understand? How can we understand that which we do not detect?
WHERE IS PROSEF LOCATED?
The office of primary responsibility for proactive aviation safety in the Air Force is the Aviation Safety Division (SEF) of the HQ Air Force Safety Center (AFSEC) at Kirtland AFB, New Mexico. We are located in the Engineering and Technical Services Branch.
WHO IS ON THE AFSEC PROSEF TEAM?
We are a half dozen active duty and reserve officers and civil servants overseeing contractors comprised of software engineers and flight analysts at the MAJCOMs.
WHY ARE YOU ON THE PUBLIC AFSEC WEBSITE?
This is the first step in building a virtual presence for Air Force safety "transformation" (the adoption of proactive safety as a key means of reducing mishaps). Our public presence is designed to provide easily accessible information to our communities of interest, which also include other Department of Defense users, U.S. Government agencies, and allied partners. As this website develops we will provide guidance for finding controlled information inside the Air Force Portal and within the Air Force Safety Automated System (AFSAS).
HOW DO I GET ASAP?
1. Contact us to assess the current status of ASAP for your organization.
2. Obtain buy-in from your MAJCOM and MDS stakeholders. A safety culture should exist in your organization that rewards the reporting of errors and hazards, versus one that either hides errors or that punishes those who err.
3. Work with us to customize (if required) an ASAP reporting form for your MDS and mission.
4. Establish an event review and risk management process for dealing with ASAP submissions.
HOW IS ASAP DIFFERENT FROM CLASS E HIGH ACCIDENT POTENTIAL (HAP) EVENT REPORTING?
ASAP is very useful in capturing those threats and errors that do not meet HAP reporting criteria. We know from the multicausality principle of mishap investigation that it is commonly a combination of events that produce mishaps. Seemingly minor threats, when mismanaged, can engender a mishap chain. ASAP can help detect those organizational and incidental issues that seem minor, even annoyances, but that can produce distraction or interference at the wrong time, resulting in mishaps or undesirable events. ASAP also protects the identity of those who submit reports, sometimes fostering increased candor and frequency of reporting of hazards by certain individuals.
WHO USES ASAP?
Since the Air Force program started in 2009, we have received over 400 reports from operators and maintainers of 14 different MDS. Currently over 50 airlines use ASAP in the U.S., producing approximately 50,000 reports every year. The U.S. Army, U.S. Navy, and numerous allied air forces use ASAP or similar voluntary reporting programs. Globally, over 105 airlines use ASAP-style initiatives that have yielded over 500,000 reports. That's half-a-million identified threats and errors to aircraft safety!
CAN MFOQA BE USED PUNITAVELY AGAINST PILOTS OR AIRCREWS?
Numerous aircrew protections exist to promote the proper use of data used for MFOQA. The MFOQA information flow aggregates data from multiple flights before processing that data through customized software, searching for trends that point to unsafe latent conditions, such as poorly designed procedures, normalization of deviance, or unsafe external conditions. Generally, there's no need to investigate the individual data parameters associated with a particular flight.
However, determining the cause of a trend may require evaluation of individual flights feeding that trend. In those cases the official OSD memo that mandates MFOQA (11 October 2005) and AFPD 90-13 comes into play. It clearly states that, "Data generated from the MFOQA process shall not be used for monitoring aircrew performance to initiate punitive or adverse action. In cases of suspected willful disregard of regulations and procedures, MFOQA data may be used for action." That means that if an aircrew makes a mistake that is uncovered during data analysis, action will not be taken against the crew. On the other hand, if the data analysis identifies unusual activity that appears to violate regulations, commanders may use the information to conduct an investigation; if improper behavior is verified then the data can be used to support the appropriate response.
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MFOQA AND FLIGHT DATA?
MFOQA is a process. MFOQA uses flight data collected onboard aircraft in order to analyze trends to detect possible mishap precursors.
WHERE IS THE MFOQA GUIDANCE?
Jul 2000: MFOQA endorsement by AF/SE
Dec 2004: PBD 705 (initial service funding and direction)
Apr 2004: FAA AC 120-82 (U.S. civilian FOQA)
Oct 2005: OSD MFOQA Implementation Memo
Mar 2008: AFPD 90-13 (MFOQA)
Apr 2008: AFI 90-1301 (Implementing MFOQA)
WHO USES MFOQA?
Since the birth of FOQA analysis process at British Airways in 1962, the following operators have started using MFOQA: 10 USAF MDS (more are coming), the U.S. Navy, the U.S. Army, allied air forces, over 40 airlines and corporate flight departments in the U.S., and ICAO airliners with MTOW over 60,000 lb.
AFSAS keeps giving an “Impact Point” error message when I try to close out my report, why?
You must enter an impact point before you send remains to the Smithsonian. If not, the Smithsonian will not be able to link your impact point to the wildlife identification, and you will get an error when you try to close the report.
AFSAS will not allow me to run a full query for my base. How do I get that information in the mean time?
AFSAS has a limited query capability with the Data Extraction Tool. If you are not getting valid data or can't retrieve the data you need contact the BASH Team. We are working on improving query capability for the field to use.
Contact the BASH Team.
What do I report?
Report all damaging and non-damaging bird/wildlife strikes.
Remains found on the runway as the result of a suspected aircraft strike must also be reported.
Strikes occurring to non-USAF aircraft at Air Force bases should be reported by the host installation flight safety office if the strike information is available.
Bird/wildlife strikes must be reported as they occur using AFSAS.
Reference AFI 91-204
Are there any special procedures when collecting bird remains from Avian Hazard Countries?
See the Avian Flu Hazard Recommendation section - Click here!
Do I still need to send in remains from countries with an Avian Flu Hazard?
YES! All remains are sent to the Smithsonian Institution for identification. Overseas shipments must contain the proper paper work though.
For more information, click here.
What kind of feather material should I send to the Smithsonian Institution for ID?
Collect as much as possible.
Pluck/pick a variety of feathers from the wings, tail, breast, and back.
Include any feathers with distinct colors or patterns.
Include any downy "fluff" you might find.
Include beaks, feet, and talons if possible.
Even if only a small amount of material is available - send all of it.
Do NOT cut off feathers. This removes the downy region we may need to aid in identification.
Do NOT use any sticky substance, such as tape, to attach feathers.
Where do I get copies of the paperwork required to ship remains from countries with an Avian Flu Hazard?
You must have the proper documents to ship bird remains from Avian Flu Hazard countries - Foreign Base Guidelines, Certificates of Origin and Treatment, and the Smithsonian US Dept of Agriculture APHIS Permit.
Click here to access forms.
Where do I send the remains after I collect them?
All remains are sent to the Smithsonian Institution for identification. Open the Remains Shipping sheet to find the correct address for your remains.
Shipping Sheet >>>
Why should I send remains to the Smithsonian Institution for identification?
AFI 91-204, states that feathers or feather fragments of all bird strikes are to be sent for identification.
Should the need arise to present strike statistics in court or to another government agency, as has occurred in the past, the preponderance given to the data is greater.
The feather ID program provides a foundation for the Bird Avoidance Model dataset. When we know what we are hitting, when we are hitting them, and with what relative frequency, it allows us to fine-tune the BAM and increase both its accuracy and validity.
If we know what we are hitting, we can develop a better BASH plan to deal with/avoid them. Not all bird species react the same to various deterrents. What scares some species may attract more dangerous species.
Provides consistency in our identification program. Knowing that only 1 team of personnel did the ID, allows us the ability to account for method of identification and accuracy.
Allows for accuracy. Birds of the same species can look completely different from one another based on variables such as gender, age, and time of year. The experts at the Smithsonian Institution have years of experience in feather identification, and posses over 650,000 bird specimens with which to compare the remains with.
How do I get the BASH Team to do a technical assist site visit at my base?
You must coordinate all requests for a technical assist site visit with your MAJCOM safety office. The BASH Team funds are limited, therefore bases may be required to fund the trip.
With respect to a technical assist site visit, what else does the BASH team require from the base other than funding?
The BASH Team prefers to stay on base in the VOQ as opposed to an off-base location. This allows us the opportunity to observe base operations and wildlife activity both during the day and night.
During the visit, it would be most advantageous for both the BASH Team and the base to have all units involved in the Bird Hazard Working Group present to discuss any issues that arise.
1. Does the Air Force sponsored motorcycle training require a state motorcycle license/endorsement or learners permit?
ANS: Yes, all AF sponsored motorcycle training whether it is conducted in-house, through local contract with commercial vendor or by voucher requires the member to either have a state license/endorsement or a learners permit. AFI91-207, Paragraph 188.8.131.52.
2. I attended the Updated BRC2 course but in MUSTT it still shows me overdue for training. Is Updated BRC2 still acceptable for intermediate (Level II) training?
ANS: Yes, BRC2 is an acceptable training curriculum for SportBike rider intermediate (Level II) training. Currently there is an issue with MUSTT in that it doesn’t recognizing this training. A feedback is in to correct the problem. AFI91-207, Table 4-1
3. We have in-house volunteer training for BRC and BRC2 training for the installation. What is the policy on issuing MSF cards?
ANS: First it is important to understand the acronyms MSF has for these courses. To clarify the distinction between the older version and newer versions of MSF training, the older version will now include 2013 after the acronym, BRC 2013, BRC2 2013, MSRC 2013, ARC 2013. The updated version will just have the acronym, BRC, BRC2, MSRC, ARC. Currently the MSF uses the same completion card for BRC & BRC 2013, BRC2 & BRC2 2013, etc. Since BRC2 is acceptable for intermediate SportBike training and BRC2 2013 isn’t, when issuing the BRC2 cards provider must write “2013” at the top of the card for older version of the course and “Update” at the top of the card for the newer version of the course.
4. I am a new rider with a motorcycle endorsement. Do I need to attend the initial (Level I) BRC training?
ANS: No, as an experienced rider with an endorsement you have completed the initial (Level I) training and have 1 year from date of identification as a rider to complete intermediate (Level II) training and then refresher training every 5 years after completion of your last training class. AFI91-207, Table 4.1. and Paragraph 184.108.40.206.
5. I have a learners permit but haven’t ridden a motorcycle before, is initial training no longer available for me to take?
ANS: Holding a permit and MUSTT account you are eligible to take AF sponsored motorcycle training. If your experience level isn’t sufficient for completing intermediate (Level II) training the AF is responsible to provide initial training for you. AFI19-207, Paragraph 220.127.116.11. Table 4.1.
6. I attended a commercial course to learn to ride a motorcycle that wasn’t an MSF course. How would I determine if the course I completed is acceptable to meet AF training requirements? AFI91-207, Paragraph 4.1.2.
ANS: We get this question a lot. You can locate it on the Occupational SharePoint site or here under Informational Material PMV-2 Training Courses tab is a list of acceptable courses. If the course you attended is not on the list and you feel it should be, you may request to have course approved by routing a formal request for approval through your host safety office requesting it be added to AF suitable substitute listing. They will in-turn evaluated the course and follow established guidelines to route request for approval through the MAJCOM and HQ AF Safety Center.
7. How often, as a rider, do I need to log into my MUSTT account to ensure my record isn’t purged? AFI91-207, Paragraph 1.3.11
ANS: Riders should log into their accounts a minimum of once every two years or whenever there is a change to the riders status or personal demographics such as, a promotion, completed another training course, bought/sold a motorcycle, PCS’d, PCA’d, etc.
8. I am an experienced rider and current on Initial (Level I), Intermediate (Level II), and only a year into the 5 years before refresher training is due. Why does MUSTT now show I am overdue intermediate (Level II) training?
ANS: Without seeing your record there are a couple of reasons for this. The most likely is that you changed the style of motorcycle you ride, i.e. went from a street cruiser style to a street SportBike or you ride a SportBike and took BRC2 training, in this case see question 2.
9. I am confused on the briefings and training required to keep current as an AF motorcycle rider. What are the requirements in a nutshell?
ANS: The answer does hinge on rider’s particular status, Scenario A: new rider/newly identified with only a permit or new rider/newly identified rider with endorsement. AFI91-207, Table 4.1
Scenario A: Initial (Level I)(prior to riding), Intermediate (Level II) within 1 year following initial training, Refresher (Level III) within 5 years of intermediate (Level II) and then refresher is required every 5 years.
Scenario B: Intermediate (Level II) within 1 year following initial training, Refresher (Level III) within 5 years of intermediate (Level II) and then refresher is required every 5 years following last refresher class.
Note: if you change style of motorcycle from a cruiser to a SportBike and the intermediate (Level II) training you took was not a SporBike related course then you would be required to attend an intermediate SportBike related training course within 1 year of moving to a SportBike.
There are only two briefings, Unit Initial Safety Briefing and Annual/Preseason Safety Briefing. Unit brief is required within 30 days of being assigned to a new unit, regardless if it is a PCS or PCA. Annual/Preseason is required once a year as the title implies. Both briefings are accomplished at the unit level.
10. Where can I find the list of training sites the AF considers meets training requirements as listed in AFI91-207?
ANS: For complete listing of motorcycle approved training go to the Occupational Safety SharePoint site under the Traffic Safety tab and then the PMV2 tab. AFI91-207, Paragraph 4.1.2
11. How can I get a local training site evaluated and approved to meet AF training requirements?
ANS: You would need to submit a formal request for approval through the installation host safety office for consideration. If they approve then the host safety office submits the package to their MAJCOM for approval. If approved it would then be sent to HQ AF Occupational Safety, Traffic Safety Branch for either final approval or disapproval. AFI91-207, Paragraph 4.1.2. and 18.104.22.168.2.
12. I ride a 3 wheel motorcycle what training am I required?
ANS: No training is currently mandated for riders of 3 wheel motorcycles. AFI91-207, Paragraph 4.4.4.
13. As a scooter rider am I required to have a MUSTT account and have training?
ANS: If the scooter you ride is larger than a 49cc the answer is yes on having a MUSTT account and training. Any scooter greater then 49cc is considered for the purposes of training and registration in MUSTT a motorcycle. This falls in line with a majority of state licensing requirements. AFI 91-207, Paragraph 22.214.171.124.2.